Archive for the ‘Mental Illness’ Category

Well, Joker was a breath of fresh air.

I like pure escapism as much as anyone else, but I find myself too often frustrated with an unspoken rule in much of our popular entertainment: If it’s about Batman, Superman, Spider-Man, or whatever-man-or-woman, it must be presented cartoonishly.  Even when the “serious” moments occur, it has to be obvious that people are pretending.

Joker is about what happens behind the scenes (more…)

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Okay — so in part one we made a comparison between Game of Thrones‘ Petyr “Littlefinger” Baelish and the wife from the Brothers Grimm’s “The Fisherman and His Wife.”

Whichever character you’re looking at, the trajectory is essentially the same. (more…)

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handgunWell we’ve seen several more tragic and senseless shootings these last couple weeks, most notably those at a Planned Parenthood clinic in Colorado and at the Inland Regional Center in San Bernardino, CA.

And with the three-year anniversary of the Sandy Hook shooting fast approaching, dealing with these tragedies casts an even greater pall over our holiday anticipations.

There is no way around it: We’re in the midst of an epidemic.  It has not yet reached the level of a Black Plague, but it’s not inconceivable that it will.

As always, to point to a single cause is surely simplistic and potentially irresponsible.  But there are a number of “currents” in our great cultural ocean that feed into this phenomenon (more…)

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Please note: This is a follow-up to the post titled “What We Can Learn From Drug Addicts and Alcoholics” — but it can be read on its own.

HeroinIf there is, or were ever to be, a theology of addiction, my guess is that it would follow an Augustinian anthropology.  Addressing God, St. Augustine of Hippo had this to say:

You have formed us for Yourself, and our hearts are restless till they find rest in You

(Confessions, I:1)

“You have formed us for Yourself…”

Man’s soul is a vast cavern, bigger by far than anything in the created universe.  It is made for God as a lock is made for a key, an outlet for a plug, a certain kind of hat for a certain-shaped head, etc.  Any time we try to hook our infinite desire for God onto something less than God, inevitably it fails to satisfy.

Nevertheless, we do get some semblance of joy the first time we use or experience the object in question.  The more this initial feeling eludes us on subsequent occasions, the harder we will strive — and the more extreme measures we will take employ — to reproduce it. (more…)

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Red_Ribbon_WeekWe will be observing Red Ribbon Week in the U.S. in less than a week.  Let it be a sign of our fervent opposition of both drugs and the abuse of otherwise benign substances, as well as our commitment to honoring the law enforcement officials who have risked and given their lives in the fight.

HomelessBut at the same time, may the red ribbons also symbolize our solidarity with those who struggle with drug and alcohol addictions.  Why?  Because they are our brothers, sisters, sons, daughters, mothers, fathers, friends, cousins…fellow flesh-and-blood human beings.  Hence we must remember, as the saying goes: “There, but for the grace of God, go I.”

Most of us are not encumbered with illegal addictions, thank God.  But let’s face facts honestly.  How many of us will go shopping even when we know we don’t really need to?  How many of us spend umpteen hours a week watching mind-numbing TV programs even when it gets in the way of proper care for our bodily health, our personal and domestic responsibilities, and valuable family time?

How many of us will fill up our houses with various things we like to collect without ever using them?  How many of us eat and drink more than we need to, or eat/drink too much of the wrong things, even when we are aware of this habit’s incremental detrimentality to our health?

Lastly, as much as we may decry the drug-addicted son who steals money from his own mother’s purse to get his “fix,” how often are we willing, in subtle and small ways, to hurt the people we love in order to get what we want?

And so on down the line.

This leads us to an invaluable perspective.  Addiction, as we understand it, is merely an intensification, a heightening, of the condition from which we all suffer — namely (and to use a classic technical term), concupiscence, the disordering of the passions and their war against our reasoning powers.  And doubtless, our own wrongdoings have added to the great pool of “mass concupiscence” that floods humanity, making each of us in some mysterious manner partly responsible for the addictions of our alcoholic and so-called “junkie” brothers and sisters.

Therein lies the secret of what we may learn from these people: They know we are at war.  They, more than most of us, can sympathize with St. Paul when he says:

I see in my members another principle at war with the law of my mind, taking me captive to the law of sin that dwells in my members

(Romans 7:23)

…and elsewhere:

For I do not do the good I want, but I do the evil I do not want.

(Romans 7:19)

St. Francis_MeditationThe saints, in their arduous quest for holiness, have often gained a very keen sense of this condition within themselves, and of their (and our) complete helplessness and insufficiency apart from God’s grace.

So in short, saints and addicts know the fundamental truth of which the rest of us, for the most part, tend to be in denial (for which reason the devil can often do his work undetected).  This is, as it were, the anthropological aspect of addiction.  I think there is a theological element to be considered as well, and I will explore that next time.



  1. “Lozano Red Ribbon Week”. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lozano_Red_Ribbon_Week.jpg#/media/File:Lozano_Red_Ribbon_Week.jpg
  2. “SDF à Charleroi – 1” by Jmh2o – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SDF_%C3%A0_Charleroi_-_1.jpg#/media/File:SDF_%C3%A0_Charleroi_-_1.jpg
  3. “Francisco de Zurbarán 053” by Francisco de Zurbarán – http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/francisco-de-zurbaran-saint-francis-in-meditation/27646. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Francisco_de_Zurbar%C3%A1n_053.jpg#/media/File:Francisco_de_Zurbar%C3%A1n_053.jpg

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Still_Alice_-_Movie_PosterThe very beautiful and exceptionally talented Julianne Moore took home her first Academy Award this year, after four previous nominations.  Among the many worthy roles she has filled, that of Dr. Alice Howland in Still Alice is easily the most poignant, heartbreaking, and…well, real.

still alice openingHowland is an accomplished linguistics professor at Columbia University and a happily married mother of three.  As the film opens, we see her enjoying dinner at a first-class restaurant with her husband John (Alec Baldwin) and their three children — Anna (Kate Bosworth), Tom (Hunter Parrish), and Lydia (Kristen Stewart) — in celebration of her 50th birthday.

By turns, we see her as an ardent jogger, a renowned scholar, and a “hostess with the most-est.”  Throughout all this, though, we also see signs of trouble.

It starts small.  She forgets the names of everyday things.  She thinks the people around her are talking about people other than the individuals about whom they are actually talking.  She forgets the word “lexicon” at a linguistics lecture.  Something is clearly wrong.

She consults a neurologist, who runs some very thorough tests.  After a short time, she is given the bad news: She has early onset familial Alzheimer’s disease.

alice deterioratingAs the film progresses, we see Alice’s mental condition deteriorate rapidly.  More painfully, she experiences it.  Memory loss, and the resultant compromise affecting one’s hard-earned sense of identity, is a tragedy in all cases; and yet it is also in each case unique.  Alice’s case is particularly tragic given that for the whole of her life, she has defined herself in terms of her intellectual prowess and her facility with language; now, both are being taken away from her.

Perhaps this is the main factor motivating her, when she is still relatively lucid, to make a video message addressed to her “future self,” in the event that she should progress to the point at which existence becomes intolerable.  She leaves instructions for finding a bottle of pills which, if she takes a large number at once, will draw her into a quick and peaceful death.  You could call it a premortem suicide note.

When the time at last comes and she discovers the video on her laptop, Alice quickly seeks out the pills and nearly succeeds in following through with her own advice.  She is, however, interrupted by the arrival of her caregiver, and the opportunity is gone.

kristen stewart still aliceThe film ends with Alice’s daughter Lydia, who until now has lived in California pursuing an acting career, moving home to become her permanent caretaker.  At this point Alice is barely able to speak, and her cognition has been reduced almost to the rudiments of mental functioning.  Sitting with her in the living room, Lydia reads her the lines of a play (which she presumably once either starred in or auditioned for) in which the spirits of the departed unite in harmony to protect the world.

She asks her mother if she can tell her what the material was about.  Alice offers her somewhat slurred, one-word reply: “Love.”

Ok — there is a lot more to the movie than my summary suggests.  But this is the “skeleton” of the film, and the material most relevant to the analysis I intend to offer.

Speaking as a Roman Catholic, I am struck first and foremost by the light the final scene casts upon the rest of the film.  Viewed in the right light, Alice’s journey can be seen as a human reality that, like so much else in this world, points beyond itself to something infinitely bigger, something of profound significance to the spiritual life.

If you read the great saints and mystics throughout the ages — from St. Paul to Thomas a Kempis, St. John of the Cross, Thomas Merton, and on and on — you’ll find they all say the same thing: Once a soul has progressed to the higher stages of the spiritual life, God will put it through what is called the Dark Night of the Soul.  This describes a state in which the soul is, by the invisible workings of God, stripped of all attachments and consolations, both of the senses and of the intellect…in fact, even the spiritual joys of the earlier stages of the spiritual life are taken away.  It is tantamount to a forfeiture of the ego-self, along with everything it thought fundamental and defining in terms of its identity and happiness.

At this point the soul stands in a sense between heaven and earth.  It has not yet received — indeed, is not yet quite ready for — the joys of heaven, and yet it can no longer take delight or comfort in the things of earth.  It is in this state that the soul is most fully united with Christ’s sufferings on the Cross.

After this, emptied of all selfishness and all created things, the soul is finally ready to be fully permeated by the Spirit of God.  From then on, the soul can truly say: “I have been crucified with Christ; yet I live, no longer I, but Christ lives in me” (Galatians 2: 19-20).

But this does not amount to anything like a Christian “Nirvana.”  Paradoxically, one finally discovers one’s true self in this experience, after having turned away from him/herself.  For at the height of the contemplative life we become connected to that Power which not only created us, but continues to create us even now.  This is also to discover at the deepest center of our own being the same Power at the deepest center of the being of all other people, and indeed of all created things.  Hence, in the Lord, we find the great value of all that exists, as well as the depth of our fellowship with one another and with all creation.


Let’s be clear about something: Alzheimer’s is not the Dark Night of the Soul, and the Dark Night of the Soul is not Alzheimer’s.  But life here below is significant — that is to say, full of signs.  And just as the health-building diligence of one who exercises strenuously is a kind of earthly sign of the spiritual diligence that ends in glory, so Alice’s case and others like it can potentially point to the salutary role of suffering in the spiritual life.  And the fact that the loss of all of Alice’s faculties leaves her only with the fundamentality of love likewise points to the fact of love’s primacy as ultimate reality (see 1 John 4:8).

While the majority of us will not likely reach the aforementioned height of contemplation in this life (thankfully, we Catholics believe in Purgatory), any progress in the spiritual life is priceless and expands our humanity.  And suffering, borne patiently, has more power to help us along the way than almost anything else in this life.  Had Alice Howland known about this, perhaps she would not have been so quick to arrange for her own suicide.  Likewise, the rest of us should think twice before turning to “compassionate death” as an answer to serious suffering…indeed, even terminal suffering.  For to take this route is to deprive ourselves and our loved ones of an invaluable opportunity, and to reduce the unfathomable greatness of human personhood to a form of dignity that, at best, fits an animal.

Sorry this took so long, but I really wanted to make it in just one post with this one.  Thanks for reading.


1. “Still Alice – Movie Poster” by Source (WP:NFCC#4). Licensed under Fair use via Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Still_Alice_-_Movie_Poster.jpg#/media/File:Still_Alice_-_Movie_Poster.jpg

Remaining images obtained through a Google image search.


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 Robin_WilliamsTogether with millions of others, I am deeply saddened by the death of comedian and actor Robin Williams. To say that I was shocked when I heard about his apparent suicide on Monday would be an understatement; if I hadn’t put my hands on my head, I might have fallen over.

I’ve been a big fan of Williams since I was about eight years old, having been introduced to his work through such family favorites as “Hook,” Aladdin,” and “Mrs. Doubtfire.” Since then, I have come to admire his incredible range as demonstrated in such films as “The World According to Garp,” Dead Poets Society,” “Good Morning Vietnam,” “Awakenings,” and “Good Will Hunting.” He was an enormously talented man, and surely his complexity as a person was mirrored in the depth and breadth of his work.

And that is what makes this situation especially tragic. Suicide, the ultimate act of despair, is always a tragedy – but its sting is uniquely potent when it occurs in someone who, in life, seemed so positive, so life-affirming, so happy…someone who brought cheer and hope to many through laughter.

Before I start rambling (if I haven’t already), I want to cut right to a question on the minds of many religious people: Is Robin Williams now in hell?

Here is my definitive answer: I don’t know. And if you were to talk to the pope or any conference of bishops, they would have to say the same.

SuicideLet me try to sum up the Catholic position on this issue as best I can. Suicide, objectively speaking, is a mortal sin – that is, a sin of the type that results in the loss of divine grace in the soul (for more on mortal sin as distinct from venial sin, click here). Why is this? In short, it is a selling-out. It is one thing to accept the fact of death, and even to surrender to it when our time comes; but to kill oneself is to choose death over life. And if we believe in existence beyond death, then we must affirm that our choice in favor of life or death carries into eternity.

However – and this is very important to understand – mortal sin requires three things: 1) Serious matter (which suicide is); 2) full knowledge; and 3) full consent of the will. In other words, we have to both know what we are doing and consent to the action with full freedom. So it is not only fully possible, but probably very common for people to commit objectively serious acts, but without culpability in terms of a mortal sin…and, in some cases, perhaps even without any responsibility for their actions.

As experts will affirm, spontaneous suicides are very, very rare. In the vast majority of cases, those who commit suicide suffer from any one of a number of debilitating mental illnesses that not only impact their lives, but also severely inhibit their ability to make the right decisions.

As has been widely publicized, Robin Williams suffered from clinical depression, which is a very serious condition. I think we can pretty safely assume that his freedom in decision-making was compromised.

It may be that there are people reading this who, like Williams, suffer from depression or a related illness. After Williams’ suicide, you may be tempted to lose hope. “Gosh,” you might say, “if a celebrity with billions of dollars couldn’t get sufficient help to battle his depression, what’s in store for me?”

Here’s what you have to understand: Robin Williams’ situation was very unusual. From what I understand, his depression was part of a longer history of bi-polar disorder. And this was in addition to a history of addiction to cocaine, heroine, and alcohol. Pile onto that the immense pressure of stardom, and you have a dangerous situation that, thankfully, most people with a mental illness don’t have to face.

Let us pray for the soul of Robin Williams, and for all of our dearly beloved brothers and sisters who struggle with these very cruel conditions. Remember, all times and places are present to God at once, since He is outside of time and space; therefore, we must never despair of our prayers being able to help even those who have left us.

Images from Wikipedia

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